Data sources

Data were collected from the following research instruments: documents analysis, participant observation; in-depth interview; and researchers’ observation field notes.

Documents analysis. On day 1 of the data collection process, researchers requested institutional management to identify possible participants according to the specified criteria. For the selection process, documents analysis was performed on the Reports of Trainee Teachers’ Performance in final semester examination and the Folio of Knowledge-based Coursework.

Participant observation. Observation is a very important method of this qualitative research. In general, observation was conducted during the four-month period to study the participants’ Internet skills in terms of what is their most frequently visited website, average time spent, availability of Internet access, and other non-professional uses of Internet.

In-depth interview. Before the in-depth interview was conducted, a stimulus test was administered to the participants and their answers were analyzed. Continuous data analysis process is recommended for qualitative research (Merriam, 2001). Concurrently, the lecturer who taught participants had also been interviewed to collect details regarding the research questions. By using protocols prepared, in-depth interview was further conducted to the participants to identify their behaviors in using Internet for information seeking activities. All conversations were recorded via audio and had been transcribed.

Observation field notes. Data observed by researchers were written and recorded into the field notes according to researchers’ personal interpretation on the case study. Skills gained by researchers through experiences in teaching, book reading and services from experts had also contributed to the observation process.

Data gathered from these instruments were listed according to the categories of Internet usage, which are Internet search engine, e-mail, homepage, educational institution, ICT, teaching and learning, and other types of Internet usage.

Representative APR 391%

Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

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