Expression of ntl gene, spt gene and tbx16 gene is shown in Figure 3. Although the zebrafish were harvested within a short period of time the variation within the single groups is remarkably high. Therefore statistical significant differences are seldom observed. Highest expression of ntl gene (38.8±30.6) was seen after exposition the embryos to p252-NP, followed by the expression after treatment with p33-NP (16.8±11.7). The expression of ntl gene in the other zebra fish embryos varied between 7.7±4.4 in p22-NP and 0.8±0.6 in the p353-NP group. Expression of spt gene was highest in zebrafish embryos treated with t-NP embryos (33.3±15.6). The spt gene expression in zebra fish embryos under treatment of the different isomers of nonyphenol used varied between 0.72±0.63 (p353-NP) and 20.9±16.1 (p252-NP). Performing linear regression using the expression of spt gene and nt} gene based on the response of the individual embryo revealed a significant correlation with a coefficient of determination R2= 0.9172.

Fig3Nonylphenol Induces Expression_decrypted
Figure 3 : Gene expression levels of ntl (a), spt (b) and tbx6 (c) relating to the housekeeping genes rpl13a and efla of zebra fish embryos treated with different synthetic isomers of nonylphenols (NP) with a concentration of 10 Nmol/L for 1 hr. Technical NP (t-NP) is a mixture of more than 20 NP isomers. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as vehicle control. Values are means of 5 independent experiments with SEM. Asterisks indicate significant difference (p<0.05) as compared to DMSO control (Tukey-Kramer test)

The expression of tbx6 gene measured for zebrafish embryos exposed to all isomers but p353-NP and t-NP is comparable to the expression observed in zebrafish embryos treated with DMSO (values between 0.3±0.1 for p252-NP and 2±2 for p33-NP). Zebrafish embryos treated with t-NP showed an expression of 9.8±3.7. A marked increase in tbx6gene expression was observed in zebra fish embryos treated with p353-NP (83.5±14.7). This induction is statistically significant different from the expression of tbx6 gene in zebrafish exposed to DMSO alone.

Representative APR 391%

Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

Calculate APR