The development of zebrafish embryos after incubation with various isomers of NP is demonstrated in Figure 1. Normal development after 48 hr of incubation results in a long extended tail without any bending or tip broadening (Figure 1H). The malformations in development of the tail produced by treatment with different isomers of NP are shown in Figure 1A-G. In some cases the malformation were accompanied by necrosis of the tail tip (results not shown). All NP isomers produced spinal malformations: Zebrafish embryos treated with p22-NP showed short tails which appeared to be incomplete developed (Figure 1A). Exposure of zebrafish embryos to p252-NP, p262-NP, p33-NP and /-NP results in bended tails. These tails showed a sharp kink in the middle of the tail length combined with a turn in the tail orientation (Figure 1B, C, D and G). Since the concentration of p22-NP and p33-NP required to induce the malformation described was 50^mol/l, calculation of EC50 was not possible. p353-NP produced a tail tip broadening (Figure 1E) which was described previously 23. At a concentration of 16 ^mol/l 50% of the embryos showed that deformation (Table1).

Slight swelling of the tail tip was observed after exposure of embryos to p363-NP (Figure 1F). The phenotype of tail tip broadening is unique for p353-NP and was never seen with other isomers of NP. After 1 hr of treatment of 3-4 hr old embryos no marked differences in phenotypes could be detected. The first time when tail tip shape was visible was around 24 hr after fertilization – independent of the treatment. No general alterations in the tail were observed from then until 48 hr after fertilization, when the tail tip was visible best. This time frame was selected because in preliminary experiments one could demonstrate that a change in expression of the selected genes is observable after 1 hr exposure, demonstrating that gene activation of transcription factors is rapid.

Fig1Nonylphenol Induces Expression_decrypted

Figure 1: 48h old zebrafish embryos after exposition with different isomers of nonylphenols (A-F), technical mixture of nonylphenol (G) and a control embryo without any treatment (H). The arrows indicate the tail malformations: White: bended tail; black: broadened tail tip; grey: very short tail.

Representative APR 391%

Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

Calculate APR