Nonylphenols (NP) have been found in almost every environmental compartment such as rain and surface water, snow, sewage sludge and sediments1-5. NP are microbiological metabolites of alkylphenol polyethoxylates. Alkylphenol polyethoxylates have exceptional surface properties, are used widely in industrial processes, and account for 5% of the tenside market 6 NP directly interact with the estrogen receptor in vertebrates 7-9 and exert effects on the reproduction of fish especially in vitellogenin synthesis 10-12 – a precursor of lipoproteins and phosphoproteins in egg yolk-production. Additionally, NP disturb early differentiation in fish inducing development of intersex gonads and circulatory and other systemic abnormalities 13. NP bind to the 17-P-estradiol receptor, induce morphologic deformations, increase apoptosis, and alter the deposition and differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes in the tailbud stage of X.laevis embryos 9 Their tendency to partly mimic estrogen and disrupt the natural hormonal balance supports the inclusion of NP to the group of endocrine disrupters.

A detailed analysis of the risk posed by NP was conducted by the European Union and led to restricted use within the EU 14 Due to the synthetic methods used, technical NP (t-NP) is a mixture of approximately 20 para-substituted isomers with differently branched alkyl chains 15, 16 whereas isomeric composition varies between mixtures p353-NP is the most abundant isomer. The absolute concentration of p353-NP in technical mixtures depends on the production process 15. It was shown previously that NP isomers varied in their estrogenic potency in the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay , in the E-screen as well as the MVLN reporter gene cell assay ’ demonstrated that t-NP and p353-NP, as well as p363-NP, p33-NP and p252-NP can be classified as partial agonists in the MVLN cell assay, whereas p262-NP, p22-NP and 4n-NP can be classified as antagonists in the MVLN cell assay.

Representative APR 391%

Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

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