NONYLPHENOL INDUCES EXPRESSION OF THE T-BOX6 GENE IN ZEBRAFISH EMBRYOS: INTRODUCTION(1)

INTRODUCTION(1)

Nonylphenols (NP) have been found in almost every environmental compartment such as rain and surface water, snow, sewage sludge and sediments1-5. NP are microbiological metabolites of alkylphenol polyethoxylates. Alkylphenol polyethoxylates have exceptional surface properties, are used widely in industrial processes, and account for 5% of the tenside market 6 NP directly interact with the estrogen receptor in vertebrates 7-9 and exert effects on the reproduction of fish especially in vitellogenin synthesis 10-12 – a precursor of lipoproteins and phosphoproteins in egg yolk-production. Additionally, NP disturb early differentiation in fish inducing development of intersex gonads and circulatory and other systemic abnormalities 13. NP bind to the 17-P-estradiol receptor, induce morphologic deformations, increase apoptosis, and alter the deposition and differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes in the tailbud stage of X.laevis embryos 9 Their tendency to partly mimic estrogen and disrupt the natural hormonal balance supports the inclusion of NP to the group of endocrine disrupters.

A detailed analysis of the risk posed by NP was conducted by the European Union and led to restricted use within the EU 14 Due to the synthetic methods used, technical NP (t-NP) is a mixture of approximately 20 para-substituted isomers with differently branched alkyl chains 15, 16 whereas isomeric composition varies between mixtures p353-NP is the most abundant isomer. The absolute concentration of p353-NP in technical mixtures depends on the production process 15. It was shown previously that NP isomers varied in their estrogenic potency in the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay , in the E-screen as well as the MVLN reporter gene cell assay ’ demonstrated that t-NP and p353-NP, as well as p363-NP, p33-NP and p252-NP can be classified as partial agonists in the MVLN cell assay, whereas p262-NP, p22-NP and 4n-NP can be classified as antagonists in the MVLN cell assay.

Representative APR 391%

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